Best C Programming Institute in Bareilly

C / C++ Programming Course in Bareilly

Cis a procedural programming language. It was initially developed by Dennis Ritchie as a system programming language write operating system. The main features of C language include low-level access to memory, simple set of keywords, and style, these features make C language suitable for system programming like operating system or compiler development. We are the best C Programming Institute in Bareilly.

1.1 History of C 1

Origins

Standardization C++ 

1.2 Strengths and Weaknesses of C 

Strengths / Weaknesses

 C Fundamentals

2.1 Writing a Simple Program 

PROGRAM: Printing a Pun

Compiling and Linking 

2.2 The General Form of a Simple Program 

Directives

Functions

Statements

Printing

2.3
2.4 Variables and Assignment 

Types 

Declarations 

Assignment 

Printing the Value of a Variable 

PROGRAM: Computing the Dimensional Weight of a Box 

Initialization 

Printing Expressions 

2.5 Reading Input 

PROGRAM: Computing the Dimensional Weight of a Box (Revisited) 

2.6 Defining Constants 

PROGRAM: Converting from Fahrenheit to Celsius 

2.7 Identifiers 

Keywords 

2.8 Layout of a C Program 

3 Formatted Input / Output 

3.1 The print f Function 

Conversion Specifications

PROGRAM: Using printf to Format Numbers 34Escape Sequences

3.2 The scan f Function 

How scan f Works 

Ordinary Characters in Format Strings 

Confusing print f with scan f 

PROGRAM: Computing the Value of Stock Holdings 

4 Expressions 

4.1 Arithmetic Operators 

Operator Precedence and Associativity  

PROGRAM: Computing a UPC Check Digit 

4.2 Assignment Operators 

Simple Assignment

values 

Compound Assignment 

4.3 Increment and Decrement Operators

4.4 Expression Evaluation 

Order of Subexpression Evaluation 

4.5 Expression Statements 

5 Selection Statements

5.1 Logical Expressions 

Relational Operators

Equality Operators 

Logical Operators

5.2 The if Statement

Compound Statements

The else Clause 

Cascaded if Statements 

PROGRAM: Calculating a Broker’s Commission

The “Dangling else” Problem

Conditional Expressions 

Boolean Values 

5.3 The switch Statement

The Role of the break Statement 

PROGRAM: Printing a Date in Legal Form

6 Loops

6.1 The while Statement 

Infinite Loops

PROGRAM: Printing a Table of Squares

PROGRAM: Summing a Series of Numbers 

6.2 The do Statement 

PROGRAM: Calculating the Number of Digits in an Integer 

6.3 The for Statement 

for Statement Idioms 

Omitting Expressions in a for Statement 

The Comma Operator 

PROGRAM: Printing a Table of Squares (Revisited) 

6.4 Exiting from a Loop 

The break Statement

The continue Statement 

The go to Statement

PROGRAM: Balancing a Checkbook

6.5 The Null Statement 

7 Basic Types

7.1 Integer Types 

Integer Constants 

Reading and Writing Integers 

PROGRAM: Summing a Series of Numbers (Revisited) 

7.2 Floating Types 

Floating Constants 

Reading and Writing Floating-Point Numbers

7.3 Character Types 

Escape Sequences

Character-Handling Functions

Reading and Writing Characters 

PROGRAM: Determining the Length of a Message

7.4 The size of Operator 

7.5 Type Conversion 

The Usual Arithmetic Conversions

Conversion During Assignment 

Casting 

7.6 Type Definitions 

8 Arrays

8.1 One-Dimensional Arrays 

Array Subscripting 

PROGRAM: Reversing a Series of Numbers 

Array Initialization 

PROGRAM: Checking a Number for Repeated Digits 

Using the size of Operator with Arrays 

PROGRAM: Computing Interest 

8.2 Multidimensional Arrays 

Initializing a Multidimensional Array 

Constant Arrays

PROGRAM: Dealing a Hand of Cards 

9 Functions

9.1 Defining and Calling Functions 

PROGRAM: Computing Averages 

PROGRAM: Printing a Countdown 

PROGRAM: Printing a Pun (Revisited) 

Function Definitions

Function Calls 

PROGRAM: Testing Whether a Number Is Prime

9.2 Function Declarations 

9.3 Arguments

Argument Conversions

Array Arguments 

9.4 The return Statement

9.5 Program Termination 

The exit Function

9.6 Recursive Functions 

The Quicksort Algorithm 

PROGRAM: Quicksort 

10 Program Organization

10.1 Local Variables 

Parameters 

10.2 External Variables 

Example: Using External Variables to Implement a Stack

Pros and Cons of External Variables 

PROGRAM: Guessing a Number 

10.3 Blocks 

10.4 Scope 

10.5 Organizing a C Program 

PROGRAM: Classifying a Poker Hand 

11 Pointers 

11.1 Pointer Variables 

Declaring Pointer Variables 

11.2 The Address and Indirection Operators

The Address Operator 

The Indirection Operator

11.3 Pointer Assignment 

11.4 Pointers as Arguments

PROGRAM: Finding the Largest and Smallest Elements in an Array 

Using const to Protect Arguments 

11.5 Pointers as Return Values 

12 Pointers and Arrays

12.1 Pointer Arithmetic 

Adding an Integer to a Pointer

Subtracting an Integer from a Pointer 

Subtracting Pointers

Comparing Pointers 

12.2 Using Pointers for Array Processing 

Combining the * and ++ Operators 

12.3 Using an Array Name as a Pointer 

PROGRAM: Reversing a Series of Numbers (Revisited) 

Array Arguments (Revisited)

Using a Pointer as an Array Name 

12.4 Pointers and Multidimensional Arrays 

Processing the Elements of a Multidimensional Array 

Processing the Rows of a Multidimensional Array 

Using the Name of a Multidimensional Array as a Pointer

13 Strings

13.1 String Literals 

Escape Sequences in String Literals 

Continuing a String Literal

How String Literals Are Stored 

Operations on String Literals 

String Literals versus Character Constants 

13.2 String Variables 

Initializing a String Variable 

Character Arrays versus Character Pointers 

13.3 Reading and Writing Strings

Writing Strings Using printf and puts 

Reading Strings Using scanf and gets 

Reading Strings Character by Character 

13.4 Accessing the Characters in a String 

13.5 Using the C String Library

The strcpy (String Copy) Function 

The strcat (String Concatenate) Function

The strcmp (String Compare) Function

The strlen (String Length) Function 

PROGRAM: Printing a One-Month Reminder List

13.6 String Idioms 257

Searching for the End of a String 

Copying a String

13.7 Arrays of Strings 261

Command-Line Arguments 

PROGRAM: Checking Planet Names 

14 The Preprocessor 

14.1 How the Preprocessor Works

14.2 Preprocessor Directives

14.3 Macro Definition 

Simple Macros 

Parameterized Macros

The # Operator 

The ## Operator 

General Properties of Macros 

Parentheses in Macro Definitions 

Creating Longer Macros 

Predefined Macros 

14.4 Conditional Compilation 

The #if and #endif Directives

The defined Operator 

The #ifdef and #ifndef Directives 

The #elif and #else Directives 

Uses of Conditional Compilation

14.5 Miscellaneous Directives 

The #error Directive 

The #line Directive 

The #pragma Directive 

15 Writing Large Programs 

15.1 Source Files

15.2 Header Files 

The #include Directive 

Sharing Macro Definitions and Type Definitions 

Sharing Function Prototypes 

Sharing Variable Declarations 

Nested Includes

Protecting Header Files

#error Directives in Header Files 

15.3 Dividing a Program into Files

PROGRAM: Text Formatting 

15.4 Building a Multiple-File Program 

Make files 

Errors During Linking 

Rebuilding a Program 

Defining Macros Outside a Program

16 Structures, Unions, and Enumerations 

16.1 Structure Variables 

Declaring Structure Variables

Initializing Structure Variables 

Operations on Structures 

16.2 Structure Types 

Declaring a Structure Tag 

Defining a Structure Type 

Structures as Arguments and Return Values 

16.3 Nested Arrays and Structures 

Nested Structures 

Arrays of Structures 

Initializing an Array of Structures 

PROGRAM: Maintaining a Parts Database 

16.4 Unions 345

Using Unions to Save Space0

Using Unions to Build Mixed Data Structures

Adding a “Tag Field” to a Union 

16.5 Enumerations 

Enumeration Tags and Types 

Enumerations as Integers 

Using Enumerations to Declare “Tag Fields” 

17 Advanced Uses of Pointers 

17.1 Dynamic Storage Allocation 

Memory Allocation Functions

Null Pointers

17.2 Dynamically Allocated Strings 

Using malloc to Allocate Memory for a String

Using Dynamic Storage Allocation in String Functions 

Arrays of Dynamically Allocated Strings 

PROGRAM: Printing a One-Month Reminder List (Revisited) 

17.3 Dynamically Allocated Arrays 

Using malloc to Allocate Storage for an Array 

The calloc Function 

The realloc Function

17.4 Deallocating Storage 

The free Function 36

The “Dangling Pointer” Problem

17.5 Linked Lists 

Declaring a Node Type 

Creating Nodes

The -> Operator 

Inserting a Node at the Beginning of a Linked List 

Searching a Linked List 

Deleting a Node from a Linked List 

Ordered Lists 

PROGRAM: Maintaining a Parts Database (Revisited) 

17.6 Pointers to Pointers 

17.7 Pointers to Functions

Function Pointers as Arguments 

The q  sort Function 

Other Uses of Function Pointers 

PROGRAM: Tabulating the Trigonometric Functions 

18 Declarations

18.1 Declaration Syntax

18.2 Storage Classes

Properties of Variables 

The auto Storage Class

The static Storage Class 

The extern Storage Class 

The register Storage Class 

The Storage Class of a Function 

Summary 

18.3 Type Qualifiers 

18.4 Declarators 

Deciphering Complex Declarations 

Using Type Definitions to Simplify Declarations 

18.5 Initializers 

Uninitialized Variables 

19 Program Design 

19.1 Modules 

Cohesion and Coupling 

Types of Modules 

19.2 Information Hiding 

A Stack Module 

19.3 Abstract Data Types 

Encapsulation 

19.4 C++ 

Differences between C and C++

Classes 

Class Definitions 

Member Functions 

Constructors 

Constructors and Dynamic Storage Allocation 

Destructors 

Overloading

Object-Oriented Programming 

Derivation 

Virtual Functions 

Templates 

Exception Handling 

20 Low-Level Programming 

20.1 Bitwise Operators 

Bitwise Shift Operators 

Bitwise Complement, And, Exclusive Or, and Inclusive Or 

Using the Bitwise Operators to Access Bits 

Using the Bitwise Operators to Access Bit-Fields

PROGRAM: XOR Encryption 

20.2 Bit-Fields in Structures 

How Bit-Fields Are Stored 

20.3 Other Low-Level Techniques 

Defining Machine-Dependent Types 

Using Unions to Provide Multiple Views of Data 

Using Pointers as Addresses 

PROGRAM: Toggling the Num Lock Key

The volatile Type Qualifier

21 The Standard Library

21.1 Using the Library

Restrictions on Names Used in the Library

Functions Hidden by Macros 

21.2 Library Overview 

21.3 The <stddef.h> Header: Common Definitions 

22 Input / Output 

22.1 Streams 476

File Pointers

Standard Streams and Redirection

Text Files versus Binary Files 

22.2 File Operations 

Opening a File 

Modes 

Closing a File 

Attaching a File to a Stream 

Obtaining File Names from the Command Line 

PROGRAM: Checking Whether a File Can Be Opened 

Temporary Files 

File Buffering

Miscellaneous File Operations 

Binary Computers is the best C programming Institute in Bareilly.

22.3 Formatted I/O 486

The …print f Functions 

…print f Conversion Specifications 

Examples of …print f Conversion Specifications

The …scan f Functions 

…scan f Format Strings

…scan f Conversion Specifications 

scan f Examples 

Detecting End-of-File and Error Conditions

22.4 Character I/O

Output Functions 498Input Functions 499PROGRAM: Copying a File 500

22.5 Line I/O 

Output Functions 501Input Functions 502

22.6 Block I/O

22.7 File Positioning

PROGRAM: Modifying a File of Part Records 

22.8 String I/O 

23 Library Support for Numbers and Character Data

23.1 The <float.h> Header: Characteristics of Floating Types 

23.2 The <limits.h> Header: Sizes of Integral Types 

23.3 The <math.h> Header: Mathematics 

Errors 

Trigonometric Functions

Hyperbolic Functions 

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 

Power Functions

Nearest Integer, Absolute Value, and Remainder Functions 

23.4 The <ctype.h> Header: Character Handling 

Character-Testing Functions 

PROGRAM: Testing the Character-Testing Functions 

Character Case-Mapping Functions

PROGRAM: Testing the Case-Mapping Functions 

23.5 The <string.h> Header: String Handling 

Copying Functions

Concatenation Functions 

Comparison Functions 

Search Functions 

Miscellaneous Functions 

24 Error Handling

24.1 The <assert.h> Header: Diagnostics

24.2 The <errno.h> Header: Errors

The perror and strerror Functions 

24.3 The <signal.h> Header: Signal Handling 

Signal Macros 

The signal Function

Predefined Signal Handlers 

The raise Function 

PROGRAM: Testing Signals

24.4 The <setjmp.h> Header: Nonlocal Jumps 

PROGRAM: Testing setjmp/longjmp 5

25 International Features 

25.1 The <locale.h> Header: Localization 

Categories 

The setlocale Function 

The localeconv Function 

25.2 Multibyte Characters and Wide Characters

Multibyte Characters 

Wide Characters 

Multibyte Character Functions

Multibyte String Functions 

25.3 Trigraph Sequences 

26 Miscellaneous Library Functions 

26.1 The <stdarg.h> Header: Variable Arguments 

Calling a Function with a Variable Argument List

The print f Functions

26.2 The <stdlib.h> Header: General Utilities 567

String Conversion Functions 

PROGRAM: Testing the String Conversion Functions 

Pseudo-Random Sequence Generation Functions 

PROGRAM: Testing the Pseudo-Random Sequence Generation Functions 

Communication with the Environment 

Searching and Sorting Utilities

PROGRAM: Determining Air Mileage 

Integer Arithmetic Functions

Binary Computers is the best C programming Institute in Bareilly.